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Posts Tagged ‘lima graft’

I recently came across an unusual LIMA  arterial  branching pattern .

Random thoughts

  • A naturally dividing LIMA faciliates multiple sequential grafting of LAD or diagonal branches.
  • As branches steal the LIMA flow it is not good for the patient
  • Surgeons struggle to clip the branches.
  • A branching LIMA has tendency to have  small diameter (As in the above patient )

I need a surgeons Input here.

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LIMA-Left internal mamary  artery is the most common arterial  graft used in CABG.It is anastomosed with LAD /and or diagonal artery. Routine visualisation of LIMA is advocated by many , but it is required only  in patients with critical CAD.

LIMA angiogram is done

  1. To confirm the presence of LIMA .
  2. To exclude subclavian  stenosis.(If present hand can steal blood from heart !)
  3. To rule out disease of LIMA (Which is unlikely )
  4. Diameter of LIMA should be matched with LAD .LIMA with large lumens can accelerate restenosis in LAD due excess flow induced endothelial reaction
  5. To identify  any early branching of LIMA .This can divert the  blood flow and underperfuse LAD.
  6. Terminal bifurcation  of LIMA can some times be used as a sequential graft to LAD/LCX/OM
  7. Tortuosity and looping of  LIMA is common but generally has no hemodynamic significance.
  8. LIMA may  provide vital  nutritional support to sternum through direct or   intercostal branches .If  LIMA dependent sternal  blood supply is found to be significant ,   sufficient precautions to be taken and anticipate sternal ischemia related complications.This is especially important in diabetic subjects.

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The NEJM’s breaks the  hidden truths about cardiopulmonary bypass in a beating  heart. The irony in medical science is   ,  trend setting  land mark articles usually arrive  very late . . .   to disappoint  all those  patients who  got the wrong treatment ! Off pump by pass is definitely one among them . . .

The major reason for off pump CABG’s s poor showing is

  • The surgeon’s  conflict   in defining   what is successful CABG  .The success of CABG   is   in    relief of symptoms & providing good bypass graft  with long term patency   .It is not in  less  thoracic trauma or in  a quick hospital discharge  !
  • The second major reason is denial of  the fact  that off pump CABG is indeed inferior  and hence no course correction was attempted  ! ( And  now that it   has become a hard  evidence   we expect some changes  . It  required almost 10 years for our cardiology community to  recognise this .)
  • Lesion access and  difficulty in mobilizing LIMA .Many times the the point of anastomoses is preselected by the accessibility and technical issues rather than lesion guided approach .This often happens than we imagine , and this could be a very bad advertisement for off  pump CABG

cabg on pump vs off pump beatin heart

Click on the link to NEJM abstract  ROOBY study

http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/361/19/1827

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Can we advice CABG for single vessel disease  ?

Yes, CABG  may be indicated  in

  • Critical , proximal , complex  LAD disease   with or without  ostium involvement.
  • Many of the bifurcation lesions with large and significant  side branch
  • Small caliber LAD with diffuse disease .

When these occur  in diabetic  subjects , the  indication for CABG is more certain .

* Present generation cardiologists  would feel  every  lesion  is  stentable and should not be referred to the surgeon .But it should be emphasized here,   technical feasibility alone  ,  does not  imply  PCI is superior and ideal in all coronary interventions.

Can we do a CABG  in  single vessel disease  with  normal  LAD ?

CABG is  very rarely  indicated   for isolated RCA or LCX disease. It should be consciously avoided in this patient population.

This is because the at risk myocardium  supplied by these vessels are far less than that of LAD. PCI  is  preferred    in these vessels .(Ofcourse , after considering medical management  ) .

CABG is  ,  too traumatic a  surgery , to  offer  in this  low  risk  coronary  lesions.

Exceptions

CABG  can still be done in following situations  for non LAD single vessel disease.

  • Left dominant circulation  with  complex lesions in LCX /OMs.
  • It is common to see diffuse , long segment  and severe disease of RCA with normal LAD /LCX system .PCI is not feasible in this subset.
  • Failed PCI
  • Recurrent instent restenosis.
  • Bail out CABG after a acute complication during PCI

One should remember ,  inability to do a PCI  does not  mean ,  the patient  should   land in surgeon’s table .We should recall , from our memory medical management is an effective and established form of treatment in single vessel disease ( Mainly for non LAD , and some cases of LAD also !)


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