Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi ,  father of my country , India , made these observations in year 1925  about the  fundamental constituents of  violence in society . These words of monumental wisdom came when he was  addressing young Indians in a country- side rally .

mahatma gandhi quotes medical science humanity

Note, his finger points to , what  exactly is relevant to our profession ! He emphasized this  nearly  100 years ago, when medical science was at its infancy .One can only guess what would be Mahatma’s comment about our profession in it’s  current form !

Should we include moral, behavioral and ethical classes  right from the first year of medical  school along with Anatomy , physiology and bio chemistry.Medical council of India obviously need to burn more mid night oil , I wish it happens in my life time. !

Following are revered  facts  . . .  among the  “Guardians of   Cardiology” !


When false truths are synthesized to conceal a true myth . . . where will the poor myth complain ?Following are revered  facts  . . .  among the  “Guardians of   Cardiology” !

  • Primary PCI  is a greatest innovation  in modern day cardiology .Without this modality  most  STEMI patients will buy Instant  tickets to grave yard !
  • A cardiologist who intends to  thrombolyse  a STEMI is considered as a low quality cardiologist .
  • Streptokinase should have  no place in the crash carts of modern coronary care units.
  • There is nothing called “Time window” for rescue angioplasty.
  • VVI pacemaker  will convert an electrical problem of heart block into a mechanical one by depressing LV function .
  • Digoxin is an obsolete  drug even in well established cardiac failure with dilated heart.
  • Beta blockers not only fail to control  blood pressure smoothly , it often converts  a hypertensive individual into a unhealthy one  by it’s prohibitive side effects !


Here is a  video recipe  !

Please click here to  see more videos from my you tube site

” This is post is 5 years old , Newer developments should be given considerations”


STEMI is the “Numero Uno” of  cardiovascular emergency .The  treatment has evolved over decades,  right from   the primitive  arm chair approach to the  air dropping of  patients  over the cath  lab  roofs  for primary PCI ! We realise by now ,both are extreme forms of treatment and  may  have unique  hazards. What we forget is the , the natural history of STEMI is too  much dependent on the degree of initial damage to the myocardium , and it is very difficult to alter this,  however good is the therapeutic strategy .  We are yet to find an answer regarding the mechanism of primary VF and modes of preventing it. We also have no answer for  ,  why  some  develop myocardial damage  very fast and  the  cardiogenic shock occur in an  accelerated fashion. (Fate ?)

Many would consider  ” non availability of   infrastructure and expertise ”  is the major issue  for  primary PCI . But the real problem is much more than that .When an  illusion of knowledge is  created by constant bombardment of data  , it is natural for human beings to believe whatever is told or printed in books and journals. We cardiologists are made to believe thrombolysis is a far . . .  far  inferior treatment than primary PCI in STEMI .  It is not so in any stretch of imagination !

The fact that,there is no entity called ” Failed primary PCI ” in cardiology literature  , would  suggest how biased we are against thrombolysis. Every cardiology  resident will  recognise  thrombolysis fails  at least 40% of time .Yes , it is  a  fact  , but the irony is , this   is  often  used   to convey a surrogate  meaning , that  is , primary PCI is  near 100% successful !

How  do you assess success of primary PCI ?

Unlike elective PCI where the criteria is too liberal, we can not afford to adopt the same in an emergency PCI. Here the aim of the procedure is entirely different (Salvaging dying myocardium vs pain relief  ).

It’s still a  mystery ,  while  thrombolysis is vigorously assessed  for it’s  effectiveness   primary  PCI is rarely  subjected to the same scrutiny  . A check angiogram  after the procedure ,  is all that is done . . . and every one  leaves the cath lab happily. The  effect of primary PCI on ST segment ECG resolution must be documented immediately after PCI. While ,  It is mandatory to take ECG after 60 -90 mts after thrombolysis , this sort of protocol is rarely  followed after PCI.

If the ST segment  fails to retract  > 50% immediately  following PCI  the procedure  should be  deemed to have failed . Further , unlike thrombolysis  in primary PCI , the ST segment has to regress within 10  mts , as IRA patency occur instantly .If we apply this criteria , the success rate of primary PCI would be far less than what we believe*

* Not withstanding the official lesion , hardware, related failure. If we encounter a severe triple vessel disease , with a bifurcation lesion and thrombus it’s  a tough exercise as we are racing against time .

Primary PCI  Camouflaging  in semantics

  • A successful but  delayed   primary PCI  is actually a failed PCI
  • A  complicated  primary PCI  often  reach the equivalence  of   failed PCI
  • No  reflow is almost synonymous with failed primary PCI as successful correction of no reflow occur in minority.
  • Not all TIMI 3 flow is converted into myocardial flow.
  • Renal dysfunction following excess dye has a  high  morbidity
  • If patient  develops significant  LV dysfunction following primary PCI it is a failed PCI.
  • Finally if the cost of primary PCI exceeds the insurance limit it is  economically a  failed primary PCI as the patient  has to spend double or triple  the amount of sum insured .This stress has resulted in many recurrent coronary events .

Why is it important to recognise failed primary PCI ?

For failed thrombolysis we have a strategy . Unfortunately , even in this modern era  we have  no useful  strategy for failed primary PCI . Handing over a patient to a surgeon in a such a situation is considered by many as a great rescue strategy but in real world it does no good in most of the patient.

Doing an emergency CABG in a sinking patient with a battered coronary artery is no easy job /Many times it only rescues the cardiologists from the embarrassing situation of facing the relatives who ask for explanation.

So , what can be done at best , in failed primary PCI ?

  • CABG can be an option but still questionable !
  • Most times  there is  no other option except to fall back on the medical management.
  • Intensive anticoagulation and one need to consider even a rescue thrombolytic treatment !
  • Some times we can only prey !  Failed primary PCI for a patient in cardiogenic shock with IABP support is near death sentence !

Final message

  • Remember ,  success of primary PCI   is  not in  wheeling out a  patient  alive out of cath lab   , with a TIMI 3 flow  in the IRA ,  but in  garnering significant   myocardial salvage   which  should have an impact on   intermediate and long term  outcome .
  • Do not ever think primary PCI is a sacred treatment modality in STEMI  and the job of the cardiologists ends there. It is vested with  lots of important complications – defined, undefined , recognised,  unrecognised, reported, and unreported ,  concealed ,denied, poorly understood, etc etc.
  • There are  equally  effective, less dangerous treatment modality available .
  • Decision  to do primary PCI  must not be based   only on the  “affordability and  availability”  of  cath lab and expertise !
  • In  clinical cardiology practice,  no  procedure  is  great   & nothing is inferior either  !  Every thing has to be used judiciously , appropriately  and  intelligently (Intelligence is synonymous with common sense many times!)

Coming soon

Surgeon’s real time experience of operating  on a failed primary PCI. To our surprise , only a handful of surgeons  have this experience

It is often said life is a cycle , time machine rolls without rest and reach  the same  point  again and again . This is  applicable for the  knowledge cycle as well .

We  live a life ,  which is infact a  “fraction of a time”(<100years) when we consider the evolution of life in our planet for over 4 million years.

Man has survived and succumbed to various natural and  self inflicted diseases &  disasters. Currently,  in this  brief phase of life  , CAD is the major epidemic , that confronts  modern  man.It determines the ultimate  life expectancy . The fact that ,  CAD is a new age  disease   and  it was  not  this rampant ,   in our ancestors  is well known .The disease has evolved with man’s pursuit for knowledge and wealth.

A simple example of how the management of CAD over 50 years will  help assess the importance of  “Time in medical therapeutics”

  • 1960s: Life style modification and Medical therapy  is  the standard of care in all stable chronic  CAD The fact is medical and lifestyle management remained the only choice in this period as   other options were not available. (Absence of choice was  a blessing as we subsequently realised  ! read further )
  • The medical  world started looking for options to manage CAD.
  • 1970s : CABG was  a major innovation for limiting angina .
  • 1980s: Plain balloon angioplasty a revolution in the management of CAD.
  • 1990s: Stent scaffolding of    the coronaries  was  a great add on .Stent  was too  dangerous  for routine use  was to be used only in bail out situations
  • Mid 1990s : Stents  reduced restenosis. Stents are  the greatest revolution for CAD management.Avoiding stent in a PCI  is unethical , stents  should be liberally used. Every PCI should be followed by stent.
  • Stents have potential complication so a good luminal dilatation with stent like result (SLR)  was  preferred so that we can avoid stent related complications.
  • 2000s: Simple  bare metal stents are not enough .It also has significant restenosis.
  • 2002: BMS are too notorius for restenosis and may be dangerous to use
  • 2004 : Drug eluting stents are god’s gift to mankind.It eliminates restenosis by 100% .
  • 2006:  Drug eluting stents not only eliminates restenosis it eliminates many patients suddenly by subacute stent thrombosis
  • 2007 : The drug is not  the culprit in DES it is the non bio erodable polymer that causes stent thrombosis. Polymer free DES  or   biodegradable stent , for temporary scaffolding  of the coronary artery  (Poly lactic acid )  are likely to  be the standard of care .
  • All stents  are  potentially dangerous for the simple reason any metal within the coronary artery  has a potential for acute occlusion.In chronic CAD it is not at all necessary to open the occluded coronary arteries , unless  CAD is severely symptomatic in spite of best  medical therapy.
  • 2007: Medical management is superior to PCI  in most of the situations in chronic CAD  .(COURAGE study ) .Avoid PCI whenever possible.
  • 2009 :The fundamental principle of CAD management  remain unaltered. Life style modification,  regular  exercise ,  risk factor reduction, optimal doses of anti anginal drug, statins and aspirin  is the time tested recipe for effective management of CAD .

So the CAD  therapeutic  journey  found  it’s  true  destination  ,  where it started in 1960s.

Final message

Every new option of therapy must be tested  against every past option .There are other reverse cycles  in cardiology  that includes the  role of diuretics  in SHT , beta blockers in CHF etc. It is ironical , we are in the era  of rediscovering common sense with sophisticated research methodology .What our ancestors know centuries ago , is perceived to be great scientific breakthroughs . It takes  a  pan continental , triple  blinded  randomised trial   to prove physical activity is good  for the heart .(INTERHEART , MONICA  studies etc) .

Medical profession is bound to experience hard times in the decades to come ,  unless we  look back in time and “constantly scrutinize”  the so called  scientific breakthroughs and  look  for genuine treasures for a great future !

Common sense protects more humans than modern science and  it comes free of cost  too . . .

Prosthetic valve obstruction is becoming a common clinical issue .It can be either acute, sub-acute or chronic . The pathology is usually thrombus formation , scar tissue growth (Pannus) or rarely a mechanical defect. Echocardiographic differentiation of thrombus from  pannus can be difficult .Generally , pannus is smaller , linear (less round) ,encroach from the periphery to central , mean gradients are consistently lower  than thrombus mediated obstruction. Clinically  pannus related obstruction present less acutely and occur in-spite of good compliance of anticoagulant medication and a well maintained  INR .

Trans thoracic (TTE)  , Trans-esophagel (TEE ) echocardiography , and real time 3D TEE are useful imaging modalities .The value of cine fluroscopy should be never underestimated and it is probably still the the best way assess the struck metallic leaflet.

Though the pathogenesis of pannus and thrombus are considered different there  is no reason they can’t  occur in a given patient at the same time.We know at least  one patient who had been referred to surgeon for mitral valve obstruction due to failed thrombolysis  had showed heavy load of thrombus  attached over a well formed pannus originating in medial sewing ring.

FInal message

However intelligent one may be , human brain often  tends to get skewed when confronted with a sudden query like  “What is your diagnosis , This or that  ?  Pannus or thrombus ? .Most will  go with  any one of it ! However, cardiac physicians must be aware  both pannus and thrombus can occur overlaid simultaneously in a given patient .The exact incidence  of such “combined thrombo-pannus”  is not known  but bound to be higher as we look for it. In fact , many of the residual gradients after lysis is attributable to undiagnosed pannus.  There is also a  suggestion scarred  , injured  ,  rough surface of the pannus could be the initial trigger for thrombus formation .


1.Differentiating thrombus from pannus formation in obstructed mechanical prosthetic valves: an evaluation of clinical, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic parameters  John Barbetseas,  Sherif F Nagueh,  Christos Pitsavos, ;J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;32(5):1410-1417. 

Degenerative Aortic stenosis occur with either normal  or congenitally malformed/ bicuspid valve.This contributes to the major chunk of  aortic valve surgeries and interventions (TAVR) in elderly population  . The optimal  timing of aortic valve replacement in patients with AS is debatable inspite of  well formed guidelines.

Three factors determine it .Symptoms , severity of aortic valve narrowing  and the tactness of LV function .The last parameter is a tricky one .We used to think in the past , severe LV dysfunction is a contraindication to aortic valve surgery. Now we realise ,however severe the LV dysfunction may be , relieving the obstruction will benefit  the patient and  the LV function is  also  likely to improve.

Cardiac physicians  face a dilemma when confronted with a patient  with low gradient and severe LV dysfunction .In this situation they are advised to do doubtamine stress Echo and watch for the gradient .If the gradient  increases that would  imply true fixed stenosis . (In pseudo aortic stenosis increased contractility opens the aortic valve and gradient will fall )

While this concept appears simple .There  are few  important issues that goes unaddressed  as we have not yet fully understood the  mechanism of LV dysfunction in aortic stenosis .(Link to mechansim of LV dysfunction in Aortic stenosis.)

At what degree of aortic stenosis LV goes down fighting and fail to generate the required  gradient ?

Myocardial function  and behaviour at times of hemodynamic stress can be highly  variable and most of us believe it is determined primarily by the genetic switches of myosin and other contractile elements .This is naturally proven at times of hypertensive left ventricular failure (Only in a fraction of the hypertensive population  LV is set to fail  when BP acutely raises.)

Proposed concept

Considering the complexities in cardiac mechanics , hemodynamics (and not to forget the vast control exhibited by genetic imprints over the hemodynamic behavior of LV) , it seems highly plausible even mild degrees of Aortic stenosis can inflict significant myocardial dysfunction in certain patients . Hence the phenomenon of pseudo aortic stenosis needs further critical analysis If this is proven to be true there could be a realistic indication for aortic valve intervention even in patient with low gradient / true Mild AS with LV dysfunction.
A word of caution is required .Relying too much (Which we often do ) on gradients in the assessment of aortic stenosis has skewed our common sense. Its wiser to have a  meaningful look at the valve morphology . A normal appearing  valve in 2D can never cause significant stenosis. Pressure recovery phenomenon also is to be given due respect as it over estimates gradient .This will effectively avoid surprises and guilt on table when we find a relatively good looking valve posted for AVR /TAVI

An attempt is made to look for individual components of cell viability .See the table below. It is a generalized statement for understanding purpose only. Various imaging modalities assess the overall physiology of myocyte function (however  they test  an individual component of a cell more than the other) We may believe an unit of cell would die in “one-go” at times of ischemic injury.Reality is much complex.There is considerable variation in intracellular survival mechanisms . A cell can die in a regional fashion with residual signs of life scattered across among the different organelles. The quantum of damage to Nucleus /mitochondria may appear determine the recovery . The reverse can also happen .What is the purpose of mitochondria respiring if contractile element is totally damaged ? It becomes a “vegetative cell”. The gross discrepancy we are witnessing in myocyte cell function recovery with reference to both acute and chronic reperfusion is attributable to this gap in our knowledge.

myocyte viability demri spect thallium dobutamine contrast echo 2

It is believed  (assumed ?), medical science is propelled by constant quest for knowledge and improvement in basic and clinical science that eventually would transform into better patient care and favorably impact  global health standards. We know the field of medicine is growing in an unimaginable pace.It’s obvious  any growth if uncontrolled or not properly guided is at risk of deviation from the main goal and ultimately  turn malignant and destroy the system which it’s supposed to guard.

How many times we realise the current treatment we administer would soon become obsolete and  even become dangerous ? What is the point in replacing treatment A by B , and  then  B is pulled over by C or D   and suddenly finding A is better than either C or D (and still we hesitate to fall back on A because its an oldie!)

Still ,this is what we call  as practicing ” State of the art medicine” How about a person who defies state of the art ,  and able to fore- see the futility which is threatening to be the  norm in modern medicine. Then,who is really Ignorant ?

I stumbled upon this  wonderful writing on this issue by ex BMJ editor by Richard Smith. Mind you , this was published way back in 1992, when the boom of  futile  ” Human  Health shopping”  was just about to explode !

medical  ethics ignorance based mediicine

Link to The ethics  of  Ignorance


Don’t get confused .Noble professionals are  licensed to  practice  with whatever is published as science as long as their intentions are deemed to be genuine .Harm arising out of  practicing what’s considered best as on today is acceptable in the court of law.

Meanwhile , its a tragic truth, If you do not follow the herd , you are at risk of being punished even for goodness committed by you. Wisdom and conscience  can never win a legal battle ! If you have the courage try practice them !

Heart and kidney work in tandem and share a close functional relationship  during health and disease.Progressive cardiac failure causes kidney function to deteriorate,what we call it as cardio -renal syndrome.Similarly, progressive renal disease inflicts either a reversible /irreversible LV dysfunction .The mechanism of  LV dysfunction has not been fully decoded. It is primarily biochemical mediated but at later stages it can be irreversible and structural damage can occur.

We believe uremic  micro molecules leaking from plasma  into cardiac Interstitium  (Myocardial proteinuria ?)  are somehow responsible for the progressive LV dysfunction. Now ,  we have new evidence for albumin – carbon interaction  possibly at myocardial level due to formation of carbamino albumin (C-alb) .

This paper from  Kidney International (2015) 87, 1201–1208;  highlights this new finding .

C-Albumin carbamylationElevated C-albumin is a new  marker for this unique , still not fully understood  entity  “Uremic cardiomyopathy”.

Further reading

Radial coronary interventions has become a global norm .Even complex procedures are being accomplished with ease adding on to the patient comfort and low risk for access site complications.However !occasionally we need to have multiple access sites to know the detailed real time  contra lateral coronary  anatomy is desirable .This becomes  vital in the retrograde approach for CTO.

Want to  have a quick glimpse of  RCA flow while one is attempting LAD PCI without additional puncture ?

How about doing a contra-lateral  angiogram with the same guiding catheter and wire in-situ within the ipsilateral ostia ? Here is an Innovation.

Of course ,the same concept can be used in femoral angiogram as well.It could reduce procedural time, adds more  efficiency of the hardware system handling.  One can’t ignore the idea as well as the comment of the  author, who says the trick is only for an advanced Interventional cardiologist.


STEMI occurs due to acute occlusion of a coronary artery  (ATO) which needs emergency opening at the earliest, ideally within  3 hours , or up to 12h . The opening shall be either by pharmacological / catheter means  or both. After 24 hours opening  a ATO has questionable benefit unless the patient is hemodynamically unstable or symptomatic.

What is a CTO ?

Traditionally we believe 3 months is the period to call a coronary occlusion as chronic.(Previously it was 6 months) This time frame was considered appropriate based on our understanding of the infarct process , that may take up to 3 -6months for complete healing of infarct  .This 3 month period is arbitrary as the chronology of intra-coronary lesion organisation  is different from myocardial infarct healing. Its worthwhile to note the chronicity of  a coronary lesion and its morphology is nothing to do with the quantum of myocardial damage it inflicts .This is because in many patients with STEMI who present late , the ATO progresses to CTO silently without any clinical demarcation or progressive myocardial damage.

chronic total occlusion acute total coronary bridging collateral

If 24 h is the cut off point for opening the ATOs to accrue any meaningful benefit , can we call  all ATO’s beyond 24 h as  physiological  CTO equivalents ?It doesn’t make sense  isn’t ? But , consider this , how do you call an occluded coronary artery between 24 h t0 say  2 weeks or 2 weeks to  to 3 months ? Sub acute total occlusion (STO) ? .Some  experts have argued to remove CTO as an entity from acute coronary setting .This can’t be done as chronicity has to set in  for ACS lesion as well. Obviously , we have a nomenclature issue here. We require a  new terminology to differentiate CTO related to ACS and CTO related to chronic coronary syndromes.

Therapeutic implication

The moment we  diagnose  a true chronic total occlusion , not only the urgency of intervention but also the indication to open becomes  questionable in an otherwise asymptomatic population.

An ironical situation often arises , when we can’t technically open a ATO in a one week old STEMI .However , the same lesion one may  open after 3 months as it has acquired a new name by now as CTO , which is perceived  a lesser guilty act of violating the sacred PCI guidelines !


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